Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare

Is Shakespeare dead after 500 years? Apparently not
What was the Order of the Cosmos (world and universe) in the Elizabethan Period? God -> Man -> AnimalsIf the rules of the law were obeyed, there was balance. If not, chaos. This hierarchical order was known as the “Chain of Being”
What are the different types of comedy? High, Low, Romantic
What is High Comedy? appeals to the intellect/prior knowledge regarding literature, social manners, etc.
What is Low Comedy? little intellectual appeal; lacks seriousness – quarrelling, boasting, trickery, confused identity, etc.
What is Romantic Comedy? Serious love is the chief concern; the course of love doesn’t run smoothly, happy endings
What type of Comedy is found in Twelfth Night? All 3 (High, Low, Romantic)
What are the 3 main story lines of the play that form a love triangle? 1) Orsino’s courtship of Olivia2) Olivia’s love for Cesario and the resulting confusion3) Malvolio’s disgrace
What does the term “Twelfth Night” refer to? January 5th, the 12th night after Christmas Eve. This day is still celebrated in England with masquerade parties. January 5th was known as the day when the world was turned “upside down.” A servant could become a master for the day and a master could become a servant.
What is the significance of the names Olivia and Viola? Olivia is an anagram for Viola and thus, this suggests that they are “foil” characters (having opposite personal characteristics)
What is significant of the name Malvolio? Malvolio sounds a lot like the word “malevolent” meaning to wish evil or harm to another or others; showing ill will
What is significant of the name Sir Toby Belch? Sir Toby Belch is appropriate because he is always drinking ale. As his name suggests, he is crude and jolly.
What is the significance of the name Sir Andrew Aguecheek? Sir Andrew Aguecheek is Sir Toby’s foil character. His name is a combination of “ague” and cheek. His name suggests that he is sickly and pale faced. “Ague” is a term that refers to one who suffers from a fever and chills – sickly. Sir Andrew is a foolish man, tall and pale.
Where does most of the action take place? In Duke Orsino’s palace and Lady Olivia’s palace in the world of Illyria. Illyria was known to Shakespeare as a region off the coast of Italy in what is Albania today. Little contact was had with Illyria during the time Shakespeare was writing, therefore, this was considered an exotic place. The name Illyria in Shakespeare’s times may or may not have suggested this place.
What are the 3 concepts of the play? Sentimentalism – showing or affected by emotion rather than reasonNarcissism – a term used to refer to some who is self-absorbed and “in love” with themselvesCourtly Love – a medieval tradition of knightly love for a lady
Who says the opening lines of the play? Duke Orsino who is a “sentimentalist” – he is in love with being in love.*Note: Fancy is bred in the eyes, love is bred in the heart.
Who is Orsino and who are his people? Orsino – Duke (or Count) of Illyria, courting OliviaValentine – gentleman serving OrsinoCurio – gentleman serving Orsino
Who is Olivia and who are her people? Olivia – and Illyrian countess, falls in love with CesarioMalvolio – steward in Olivia’s household, secretly in love with OliviaMaria – Olivia’s waiting gentlewoman, in love with Sir TobyFabian – a gentleman in Olivia’s householdSir Toby Belch – Olivia’s kinsmanFool – Olivia’s jester’s name is FesteSir Andrew Aguecheek – Sir Toby’s companion, courting Olivia
Who survived the shipwreck? Antonio – friend to SebastianSebastian – Viola’s twin brother believed lost at seaViola (Cesario) – a lady of Messaline disguised as a boy, falls in love with Orsino
Orsino, Duke of Illyria – the ruler of Illyria- powerful and a gentleman- he is obsessed with gaining the hand in marriage of the fair Lady Olivia- unaware that he himself has a secret admirer- in love with being in love
Viola and disguised as a man, Cesario – the secret admirer of Orsino- Viola comes to work for Orsino when having been shipwrecked- she disguises herself as a man- works for the Due- favoured by the Duke- entrusted to convey the Duke’s love to Countess Olivia- this late causes problems for Viola, who serves her master faithfully, despite desiring Orsino for herself and being the unwitting (and unwilling) target of Countess Olivia’s affections- has a brother named Sebastian, who is identical to her male appearance as Cesario- she fears that he died with their ship broke up at the beginning of the play
A Sea Captain – friend to Viola- he helps here to disguise herself as Cesario- he initially reports Sebastian dead
Lady Olivia – a countess of high social standing and great beauty- her hand in marriage is desired by Orsino- she has resigned herself to seven years solitude following the loss of first her father and then here much loved brother- spurning love in all its forms, she shuns Orsino’s romantic overtures, but at the sight of Cesario, falls deeply in love, causing many problems for Cesario (really Viola)- she later marries Sebastian, who looking exactly like Cesario, also steals Lady Olivia’s heart
Sebastian – Viola’s twin brother- when the ship he and Viola were travelling on sinks, he fears his sister dead, as her sister does of him- frequently mistaken for Cesario, Sebastian eventually is reunited with his sister, earlier taking the hand the willing Countess Olivia as his wife
Antonio – a Sea Captain by trade (BUT NOT THE SEA CAPTAIN MENTIONED EARLIER)- a man with many enemies in Duke Orsino’s court- accompanies Sebastian in his travels
Sir Toby Belch, Uncle to Olivia – passing his time drinking in Olivia’s house with fellow drinker Sir Andrew Aguecheek, much to the displeasure of Olivia, her servant Maria and Olivia’s uptight and humourless steward Malvolio- a great schemer of practical jokes- enjoys playing tricks on Malvolio, his friend Sir Andrew and anyone else who captures his fleeting attention
Sir Andrew Aguecheek – drinking partner of Sir Toby- he too pushes Lady Olivia’s patience and hospitality with his continuously loud and lewd behaviour- described by Sir Toby as being “as tall a man as any’s in Illyria”- not overly intelligent- has little love for the annoying Malvolio and is the party to a practical joke against him- greatly valued by Sir Toby since he is rich, earning some “three thousand ducats a year”- also the pawn in Sir Toby’s plot making- Naive by nature, he is manipulated by Sir Toby into pursuing Lady Olivia since this will maintain Sir Toby’s drinking lifestyle- later manipulated into challenging Cesario, who becomes a threat to Sir Toby’s plans
Malvolio – Lady Olivia’s steward- see himself in a somewhat grandiose light, imagining Olivia to love him and wishing to be more than his current rank- this an his continual disapproval of Sir Toby and Sir Andrew’s drinking, earn him their hatred and he quickly becomes their pawn in a complex romantic muse- he thinks that Olivia should love him
Maria – Lady Olivia’s woman- she is patient and tactful where Malvolio is brash and insulting- disapproves of Sir Toby and company’s drinking but tries tactfully to subdue their boisterous spirirts- her dislike of Malvolio leads her to create an elaborate romantic trick on Malvolio, which she also uses to calm down Sir Toby and company, who are now enthusiastic conspirators in Malvolio’s humiliation
Feste – “The Clown” / “The Fool”- servant to Olivia- speaks the truth from the source of recognized foolishness- much appreciated by Sir Toby, who spends many hours with him
Fabian – servant of Lady Olivia’s- dislikes Malvolio- participates enthusiastically in Malvolio’s downfall
Valentine and Curio – gentlemen attending Orsino at the start of the play
Act 1, Scene 1 Orsino is in love wth Olivia. However, he is told that she is mourning the death of her brother and refuses to hear the Duke’s vows of love.
Act 1, Scene 2 There has been a shipwreck off the coast of Illyria. Viola, a young woman in her late teens, has been saved, but there is no news about Sebastian, her twin brother. As a stranger in Illyria, Viola decides to disguise herself as a young man and seek employment in the Duke’s court.
Act 1, Scene 3 Sir Toby Belch has moved into Olivia’s house. His rowdy behaviour is disruptive. Maria warns Sir Toby that his actions will get him into trouble, but he seems determined to take advantage of Olivia’s hospitality. Toby is joined by his friend, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, who has decided not to pursue his courtship of Olivia any further. Toby encourages Andrew not to give up, and the two drink through the night.
Act 1, Scene 4 Viola, disguised as a young man named Cesario, is working for Orsino, who has quickly developed a deep affection for “Cesario” and has described to him his feelings for Olivia. Orsino sends Cesario to Olivia with his message of love. Meanwhile, Viola herself falls in love with Orsino.
Act 1, Scene 5 Maria is scolding Feste for his absence from the house, when Olivia enters. She is with Malvolio. Olivia is still depressed over the death of her brother, and Feste tries to amuse her. When Malvolio reveals his contempt for Feste’s good humour, Olivia defends Feste and criticizes Malvolio’s sour personality. Cesario arrives as Orsino’s messenger, but is prevented from entering the house by Toby (drunk). Malvolio is sent to remove Cesario from the premises, but her stubborn determination arouses Olivia’s curiosity and she decides to see the messenger. Cesario delivers an eloquent description of Orsino’s love, but Olivia isn’t convinced. Instead she is attracted to Cesario, not realizing that “he” is a “she.” Although she reject Orsino’s message, she sends Malvolio after Cesario, to give back a ring that she claims he forced upon her. The ring, of course, does not belong to Cesario: Olivia just wants to ensure that Cesario will return.
Act 2, Scene 1 Sebastian has survived the shipwreck which he believes has taken the life of his sister. With Antonio, another kind and generous sea captain, he has landed safely on the sea coast of Illyria. He tells Antonio about himself and his sadness over his sister’s death. Antonio decides to accompany Sebastian to the court of Count Orsino, in spite of great danger to his own life.
Act 2, Scene 2 As instructed by Olivia, Malvolio catches up to Cesario in the street to “return” Olivia’s ring to Cesario. Cesario resists taking the ring and is puzzled by Olivia’s deception. She then realizes that Olivia has fallen in love with her.
Act 2, Scene 3 Toby and Andrew continue to spend their night drunk. Feste joins them and sings a song about the pleasures of young love. Maria comes to warn the the Olivia is increasingly displeased with their behaviour, but they ignore her good advice. Finally, Malvolio appears and gives them a formal warning. he also threatens to report Maria to Olivia, for her assumed participation. Maria reveals a plan to make a tool of Malvolio by playing upon his arrogance and ambition. She is also aware of Malvolio’s attraction for Olivia. She will write a love letter in the handwriting of Olivia and arrange for Malvolio to find it. Malvolio’s discovery of Olivia’s love, Maria promises, will provide the perfect opportunity for revenge.
Act 2, Scene 4 Orsino continues to suffer the torments of unrequited (not returned) love. Feste sings him a tragic ballad about the loyalty of a faithful but rejected lover. Meanwhile, Orsino lectures Cesario about the nature of love, claiming that love affects men and women in very different ways. Viola comes close to confessing her love for Orsino, but her disguise as Cesario protects her from discovery. Cesario is sent to resume the courtship of Olivia on Orsino’s behalf.
Act 2, Scene 5 Toby, Andrew, and Fabian hide behind a bush in Olivia’s garden to watch Maria’s plot against Malvolio unfold. Malvolio enters, daydreaming about his future with Olivia, to whom he is attracted. The discovery of a love letter, apparently from Olivia to him, seems like a dream come true. As he decides to obey every instruction “to the letter,” the listeners congratulate Maria on her excellent trap.
Act 3, Scene 1 Cesario returns to Olivia’s house to resume her courtship of Olivia on Orsino’s behalf. In the garden, she meets Feste and engages in a brief battle of wits with him. When Feste leaves to summon Olivia, Viola has a short conversation with Toby and Andrew. Olivia enters and immediately dismissed the others so that she and Cesario could be alone. Olivia rejects Orsino’s love again but reveals her affection for Cesario. Cesario expresses only pity for Olivia’s feelings and swears that she will never love a woman.
Act 3, Scene 2 Andrew saw Cesario and Olivia together in the garden and decided , once again, to abandon his courtship of Olivia. Toby and Fabian convince him that Olivia was friendly with Cesario only to make Andrew jealous. They encourage him to challenge Cesario to a duel, arguing that courage is the best way to win a woman’s heart. Maria enters to reveal that Malvolio has fallen completely in their trap and is wandering around the house in yellow, cross-gartered stockings with a huge smile on his face. They run off to see the fun.
Act 3, Scene 3 Sebastian and Antonio arrive in the city where Orsino holds his court. Antonio, wanted in Illyria, is afraid of being seen and rejects Sebastian’s suggestian that they tour the historical sights and monuments of the city. He does not want, however, to spoil Sebastian’s fun and gives him money in case he wants a souvenir. Meanwhile, Antonio intends to go directly to the Elephant Inn to make arrangements for their food and lodging.
Act 3, Scene 4 Olivia is waiting for Cesario in the garden when Maria tells her about Malvolio’s strange dress and behaviour. He appears in yellow, cross-gartered stockings and a smile. His conversation with Olivia strikes here as most bizarre, and she becomes worried about his mental health. Olivia places Malvolio in the care and keeping of Toby, who immediately furthers the scheme of revenge against Malvolio by locking him in a dark room.Andrew enters with the challenge he has written to Cesario. Toby sends him to wait in a corner of the garden, deciding to issue the challenge to Cesario by word of mouth. The challenges terrifies Viola, and only with difficulty do Toby and Fabian bring her and Andrew together for a duel. Just as it is about to begin, Antonio enters. Mistaking Cesario/Viola for Sebastian, he offers to fight on Sebastian’s behalf. Toby draws his sword to fight Antonio and the Duke’s officers enter and arrest Antonio. Still thinking Cesario/Viola is Sebastian, Antonio asks for the return of his purse. When Viola replies that she has no purse, Antonio is completely bewildered. He cannot understand why the young gentleman to whom he has been so kind would abandon him in his hour of need.
Act 4, Scene 1 Feste has been sent by Olivia to find Cesario, but meets Sebastian first and thinks Sebastian is Cesario. Sebastian doesn’t know what Feste is talking about and refuses to meet with Olivia. Andrew enters and punches Sebastian in the head. When Toby intervenes to prevent Andrew from being seriously hurt, Sebastian, who Andrew supposes to be the cowardly Cesario, strikes him back. Toby draws his sword on Sebastian as Olivia appears. She also thinks Sebastian is Cesario. She dismisses Toby for his uncivilized behaviour, and invites Sebastian back to her house. Sebastian is confused, but accepts.
Act 4, Scene 2 Malvolio has been locked in a dark room because he is supposedly insane. Feste disguises himself as a priest (Sir Topas) and visits Malvolio. He pretends to be concerned about Malvolio, but uses the opportunity to mistreat him further. Toby is a bystander and is amused by Feste’s antics as Sir Topas, but begins to feel he may get in trouble for the practical joke. Feste talks with Malvolio again, this time as himself, and agrees to deliver a letter from Malvolio to Olivia. Malvolio is sure that this letter will prove that he is no mad.
Act 4, Scene 3 Sebastian is waiting in Olivia’s garden for her and is confused. He doesn’t know where Antonio is, or why Olivia likes him so much. Olivia finds him and insists that she and Sebastian go with her priest to make a formal engagement until preparations for their marriage can be arranged. Sebastian thinks that either he himself or Olivia must be mad, but he agrees to Olivia’s proposal.
Act 5, Scene 1 When Viola and Sebastian finally meet, the many cases of mistaken identity are resolved at last. Malvolio is released and is given an opportunity to speak. The play ends with a promise of marriage and a song from Feste.
Who are the 3 couples that get married at the end of the play? 1) Toby and Maria2) Olivia and Sebastian3) Viola and Orsino
Name 5 DIFFERENCES between Twelfth Night and She’s the Man. 1) In Twelfth Night (TN), Viola and Sebastian are separated because of a shipwreck. In She’s the Man (STM), Viola and Sebastian are separated because Sebastian wants to go to London for his music career.2) In TN, Viola dresses up as a boy and creates a new identity for herself: Cesario. In STM, Viola dresses up as a boy to cover for her brother. Viola uses Sebastian’s identity rather than creating a new one.3) In TN, Olivia does not want to date anyone because she is mourning the loss of her father and brother. In STM, Olivia does not want to date anyone because she just got out of a bad relationship.4) STM takes place in modern-day America while TN takes place in the Elizabethan Era in Illyria.5) IN STM, another reason why Viola wanted to dress up as a boy is to tryout for the boy’s soccer team at another school because the girl’s soccer team at her school got cut and the boy’s team won’t let her try out. In TN, soccer is not relevant.
Name 5 SIMILARITIES between Twelfth Night and She’s the Man. 1) Paul the hairdresser helps Viola turn into a boy in STM just like the Ship Captain helped Viola turn into a boy in TN.2) Both STM and TN take place in/at Illyria.3) Character names and connections to each other (ie: the love triangle) are for the most part the same.4) In both STM and TN, Duke uses Viola (Cesario/Sebastian) to try to get Olivia to like him back.5) In both STM and TN, Viola likes Dukes but she cannot tell him because she is dressed as a boy.