Percy Shelly 18th century Parallels himself to Ariel and Edward Williams to Ferdinand in order to shield the love he feels for Jane (MIRANDA). Which is similar to the parallel that Shakespeare makes between himself and Prospero through the mention of “actors” to emphasise Prospero as the director of events on the island.
The Globe production- power Prospero is further emphasised to be in the role of the “director” as he watches over the events of the play from above”These our actors, as I foretold you were all spirits”
Robert Browning- Mid 19th century- Caliban and power Sympathises with Caliban not as monstrous an interpretation of him as other colonial productions. Justifies Calibans violence is to prevent him falling into complete submission under Prospero’s power.
Ted Hughes, 1998. Love. Based on himself and Sylvia Plath.The two brought together by fate- Miranda and Ferdinand and controlled by SycoraxSylvia Plath then transforms into Caliban displaying her constant rage and inability to see the goodness in things before her suicide.
Jonathan Bate 2008- Magic Prospero “self-centred”- all the motives of the play are for his own benefit eg. Marrying Miranda off to the future king of Naples is part of his plan to ally Naples and Milan- a dynastic alliance
Jonathan Bate 2008- Caliban “The learning of a language should be what makes a man god-like as opposed to beast-like”
Julie Taymor 2011- Caliban’s freedom, power Prospero played by a woman -“Sir” changed to “ma’am”Antonio accuses her of witchcraft which results in her exile from the island-A woman possibly more vulnerable to mutiny-Closer mother daughter bond between Prospera and Miranda -Close up on Caliban at the end of the film draws the audience to reflect upon his fate.
John Dryden C17th Caliban “monstrous””his language is as hobgoblin as his person”The enchanted islandDryden and Daveant reassigned the “Abhorr’d slave” speech to Prospero as it was viewed as too outspoken for a young girl
Brinda Charry 21st C – Female roles -Sycorax makes Prospero the “moral centre” of the play her black magic as a ‘witch” in contrast to Prospero’s white magic -Through reassigning the abhorred slave outburst to Miranda she seems “Tougher and more sexually aware”
Brinda Charry- the new world “The responses Miranda invokes [from Ferdinand] are reminiscent of the amazement which the Europeans responded to the New World with its exotic and unexpected beauty “O you wonder”- females and land both something to be dominated over.
Sindey Lee 1898 [Caliban] is a creature stumbling over the first stepping stones which led from savagery to civilisation”
David Lindey 1991- music, masque genre failed response of Antonio and Sebastian to Ariel’s music signifies the “moral disharmony of their natures”Music described as a “sweet air””Masque genre actively involves the spectator in feeling”
Robert and William BroughPower Discussion of revolutions occuring in Europe at the time in a light- hearted manner. Prospero and Alonso are disposed monarchs Caliban transforms into a revolutionary Ariel leads a group of constables through the island to suppress rebellions.
RSC 2016 “intel generated pyrotechnics” adds a sense of ethereality to the play. Masque becomes more of a sensory experience as many of the concepts of courtly power and chastity are lost to a modern audience. Highly stylised Masque- extravagant costumes and use of colour along with music Miranda and Ferdinand sit at the front of the stage arm in arm and watch with the rest of the audience. ***Significance of this
Richard Adams C21st Questions the ability of man to create a “viable social order” in desolate areas.
2013 Globe During the masque the characters perform in a sort of jig
Richard Adams C21st Antonio and Sebastian “Cynics”
Richard Adams C21st Prospero “a master who wields actual authority””he has every right to be sensitive to the dangers of usurpation”
“Mine would were I human” Ariel Act
“No occupation all men idle” Gonzalo- extract from Des Canibales Act 2 scene 1
Parallel in plot. Miranda is married off to Ferdinand heir to the thrown. claribel has just been married off to king of Tunis shows importance in dynastic relations
Regicidal plot of Act 2 scene 1 Moment of political importance orchestrated by magic
Ariel imitates Trinculo- comic scene “Thou liest”
Antonio and Sebastian- still intent to commit regicide after failed attempt- evident in Act 3 Scne 3 “The next advantage/ will we take thoroughly”
Act 3 Scene 3 Climax of the plot The Neopolitans find out why they are upon the island for “supplanting good Prospero”
Masque Act 4 Display of Prospero’s power created by “some vanity of mine art” Prospero’s role as the director Manipulation of nature for good reasons- to create the MASQUE Concern of chastity “no bed right shall be paid”
Prospero’s manipulation of nature is negative towards T, C and S “with cloven tongues do hiss me into madness”
Portrayl of Prospero’s power “Ye elves of brooks”Extract from Ovid “Graves have waked their sleepers at my command”
Personification of Prospero’s magic “I’ll break my staff””And deeper than did any plummet sound, I’ll drown my book”- suggestion that his magic is something that has a hold over him that needs to be killed. Irreversible action.
Epilogue- 4th wall broken “with the help of your good hands”, requesting that the audience clap.
Rupert Goold 2006 “Ariel was a drifting black-robed figure with a ghostly white face”
Contrast between the treatment of Ariel and Caliban Caliban and Ariel both dressed in loincloths but only Caliban wears manacles.