TEST 1: As You Like It

what is the structure of the play (what are the 2) 2 world playfirst word: the courtsecond world: the forest of Arden
how does second world in AYSL reflect Shakespeare’s life rural culture of Stratford–rural world of shepherds and farmers outside of the city–DIFFERENCE FROM MSND: heavily influenced by ancient tradition of “pastoral” art
what is “pastoral” art –very old tradition dating back to the Greeks and Romans–in “pastoral” art, all characters are shepherds –NOT realistic about actual rural life–“pastoral” art celebrates a kind of never-never land of simplicity and ease—-often explores the themes of loveVERY POPULAR IN THE RENAISSANCE
characteristics of the court –urban–politics, ambition, competition, intrigue–very status conscious (men over women; older over younger; upper class over lower)–women had NO power
characteristics of the forest of arden –rural–ease, politeness, relaxation, pleasure–Identity (therefore status) is unhinged (characters are free to explore different identities)–Women are able to have power (to control love/ marriage; buy property)
who are the three sons of Old Sir Rowland de Boys 1. Oliver2. Jacques3. Orlando
birth order in the Reniassance IMPORTANT–older brother inherits all money and power from father–younger brothers were “best” back-up heirs–at worst, they are extra mouths to feed—-many sent off to boarding school or churches
Comparison of MSND and AYLI in reference to how Shakespeare starts off the plays (who does audience sympathize with) In MSND, starts off with audience sympathizing with HermiaIn AYLI, starts off with audience sympathizing with Orlando—-ORLANDO IS TREATED LIKE A SERVANT AND GETS NO EDUCATIONBOTH HAVE NO POWER
Definition of Primogeniture the legal tradition that the oldest son in a family inherits the entire family estate and all the family’s wealth–a norm in the Renaissance (just like arranged marriage in MSND)
What is unique about the Primogeniture of Duke Fredrick and Duke Senior our sympathies are reversed as Fredrick took over and banished Senior to the woods
How is the second world looked at (Charles) Parallel to Lysanders elopement speech–sets up expectation to what it is like”live like the old Robin Hood of England.”–marry, fun, pleasure–Egalitarian (Robin Hood)–careless= without care–compensatory for loss in real world”young gentlemen flock to him every day, and fleet the time carelessly as they did in the golden world.”
what is Celia worried will separate her and Rosalind LOVE–wants her to be careful and make sure it is just sport–rosalind does this to get her mind off her dad being banished
who are the 3 losers in the court 1. Orlando (younger brother)- primogeniture2. Rosalind (woman and lost power when father left)3. Duke Senior (a father and King who has lost his money and power)
what would a happy ending mean to these 3 losers getting them some power/control over their lives
how do the characters get entangled in this story via love story–Rosalind and Orlando meet at wrestling match—-Celia is there—-R gives Orlando her chain as a sign of love hereLOSERS IN FIRST WORLD FIND EACHOTHER
transitive property of love rosalind is instinctively drawn to political ally of her father–a way of remaining true to her father–a way of subtly complaining about disempowered status
Banishment and Friendship–what is Shakespeare exploring in Celia’s line to her father Fredrick banishes Rosalind… Celia begs him not to because she loves RosalindAct 1 Scene 3: “We have slept together…”–Shakespeare often represents meaningful same-sex relationships being lost as characters become obsessively interested in heterosexual intimacy
Rosalind’s Identity –adopts courage outside of the first wood, but is fearful on the inside–according to Ren. stereotypes: manly on the outside, feminine on the inside —-EXACTLY LIKE MEN”lie there what hidden woman’s fear there will” (Rosalind)–starts dressing like a man and INTRODUCES QUESTION: whether dressing up and acting as a man is really no different from a man who also acts like a man”i’ll prove a busy actor in their play” (act 3 scene 4)- talking to Corin–Rosalind’s relationship to identity is defined by her being an actor
Once in woods, how does Rosalind’s identity change she can’t stop acting like a man
how is Rosalind like Bottom she starts playing with identity and change in the 2nd world”I’ll put myself in poor and mean attire” Rosalindstarts playing about being someone else but she imagines she will remain her true self underneath–like Bottom, it starts to seem like she is really putting on a different costume and changing the way she speaks and acts
What does Shakespeare question in identity whether identity is something deep inside of you or superficial (what you wear and how you talk)–basic rule of the stage: you are what you act like–Maybe also true in real life?
what is the name Rosalind chooses for herself and how does it connect to classic mythology Ganymede (cupbearer to Zeus) –sexually loves Zeus—-one time, Zeus transforms himself to seduce Ganymede–therefore, “Ganymede” is slang for young gay man
what is the name Celia chooses for herself/ what does that mean Aliena- alienated from true self
In general, what theme does AYLI question?/ How’d it affect the audience? GENDER–Ganymede flirts with Orlando in whole play which looks like 2 men flirting –Shakespeare saw this in this age because of his profession… he questioned putting on costumes—-worked in all-male acting companyHow’d it affect audience:–very scandalous to audience/ exciting to some—-same as marrying for desire in MSND
who is touchstone court jester or “foul” that go to 2nd world with Celia and Rosalind
why is a jester a convention of theatre –allows the playwright to comment on other characters through the truth jesters are allowed to say in-jokes–jester is in play and has costume on but looks at other characters from the outside, sees through desguises, and tells the truth
how does Adam and Orlando represent Ren. service –important relationship in the Ren.–a servant, but not for $$ as a job–a sense of life-long loyalty–in Ren., many people wanted to belong instead of feeling like individuals–service was a way of attaching yourself to a higher ranking individual–NO self interest involved
what was wrong with the Branagh film showed in class it made gender look absolute whereas in Shakespeare’s plays bends the idea of gender
in second world who represent the shepherds with names from actual ancient pastoral tradition 1. Sylvius–young and in love with Pheobe who doesn’t love him back2. Corin–old–experienced in love and rejections
How is Rosalind different in the second world as Ganymede,–has power over herself and does things she couldn’t do in first worldEX: buying property in Act 2 Scene 5
Who is the Jacques in the second world an aristocrat who fled the court with Duke Senior–bitter and melancholy–overdramatic and when he meets Touchstone wants to become a jester
What are the two versions of jesters and what are their characteristics 1. Jacques’ version–an outsider–finds people corrupt; wants to condemn people, wants to set himself up as a judge–Condemns and is melancholy (depressed)2. Touchstone’s version–an inside but with a detached view –finds people funny and pokes fun at people–laughs and is merry
Who says the All the World’s a stage speech Jacques
what is the All the World’s a stage speech about –melancholy, depressed, world-weary (NOT a celebration of theatre)–underlying issue: people seem fake and inauthentic, they are just playing roles”and all the men and women merely players; they have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts, his act being seven ages.”
Jacques vs. Bottom –Jacques has same basic insight: there is something empty/ungrounded about the human identity–ATTITUDE IS VERY DIFFERENT: —-Jacques dispairs over what he sees as inauthenticity or emptiness of human life—-Bottom feels liberated and free to play a new part or to reinvent himself
Is the second world better than the first (both sides): NO–doubling of rulers–Duke protests too much about love for woods when he’s actually eager to go back to courts and get power back–men are still in charge- Rosalind functions as a man to have powerYES–there are carefree pastoral characters–there is role-playing that loosens identity–Love is highest concern–authority figures are less authoritative –women are more free —-if Rosalind is considered a woman
why does Orlando flee bc he finds out Oliver is trying to kill him
Rosalind’s problem in the woods –when she finds out Orlando is in the woods, she doesn’t know what to do with her doublet and hose (Act 3 scene 2)in a way, she is stuck as Ganymede just like the actor is
solution to Rosalind’s problem/ how does that relate to MSND Use your imagination–proposes she and Orlando put on a play (like bottom’s play) where they pretend to court each otherhow does that relate to MSND:Helena’s “love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind”BASIC IDEA: this is the only way their love will work in 2nd world
renaissance courtship –very popular subject in make-believe ten. literature/ popular fantasy about how love should work—-not many people actually did this–Defined Conventional roles:1. the male suiter2. the female beloved
male suiter role –writes poetry to and about beloved–celebrates spiritual beauty NOT sexual desire–acts despondent/sometimes crazy–wanders around alone in places where he is likely to be found be his beloved
female beloved role –changeable and fickle–encourages suitor and then turns cold–domineering as a way of “testing” the male suitor
what is phase one of Rosalind’s plan “I have an uncle who taught me how to recognize a man in love and you have none of these signs”–she is challenging him to behave correctly in terms of rules of courtship
what is phase 2 of Rosalind’s plan –gives herself a role in “play””I can cure you of love.”
why put on this courtship –from R’s POV, she is in control —-no imagination needed for her—-Rosalind takes charge by asking him to woo her–allows Orlando to “practice” courting her–allows R to test his love
according to questioning gender, what was Shakespeare curious about in regards to this courtship WHOLE HUMAN CONDITION–shakespeare seemed to not really care about social taboos–engineered this situation to “deniably” investigate sexuality between 2 men
Touchstone’s perspective on courtship and love tells truth but does not condemn –makes fun of courtship to Rosalind bc he knows the truth but does not condemn it–he, himself, engages in courtship with Audrey
why in the Ren. did people question how marriage could be based on friendship/ what was easier to imagine/ what is the new idea of marriage shakespeare proposes they say men and women are very different and unequal–friendship and emotional intimacy between 2 men or 2 women were easier to imagine—-this is then the NEW version of marriage Shakespeare proposes as Ganymede and Orlando’s friendship technically crosses genders—-CALLED COMPANIONATE MARRIAGE
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what is oliver’s conversion Fredrick banishes Oliver–Orlando find Oliver and saves him from a lion–Oliver converts from his evil waysafter hearing this and oliver shows her bloody napkin, R faints –does this reveal Rosalind’s true identity/gender
how does oliver fall in love with Aliena- but doesn’t know her real identity Celia
what happens when Orlando hears about oliver and aliena/ with that, what does shakespeare need to sort out he says he can no long “live by thinking”with that, what does shakespeare need to sort out:–the “right” marriages so everyone is happy–Sylvuis and Pheobe need to be happy together but P loves Ganymede at this point even though Ganymede hints that he is “falser than vows made in wine”HE MUST FLIP ROSALIND BACK TO FEMALE
desire leads to… CONFUSION
what is the danger of flipping Rosalind back to female/ what does Shakespeare want/ how does he do this she likes the power she has as a male–disempowering and humiliating to go back to being a female—-in the eyes of other characters, it is possible she would lose her confidence–Shakespeare wants her to go back to female with SOME power she has developed –right before switch, Ganymede makes everyone contract to the “right” marriages so she can ensure what she wants will happen
what is Rosalind’s strategy 1 Compact=ContractGanymede makes everyone contract to the “right” marriages so she can ensure what she wants will happen
what is Rosalind’s strategy 2 distraction–leaves stage and returns as rosalind–accompanied by Hymen (classical god of marriage)”his hand is his” emphasizes gender bending
who is the person who has to leave in the end for everyone to be happy and why Jacques- because he craves authenticity and there is something fake about these marriages–too fast/ sees these people as robots